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Left Ventricular Recruitment in Patients With Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

      Hypoplastic left heart complex with “borderline left ventricle” and intact ventricular septum is a clinical conundrum for the congenital heart surgeon. The choice between neonatal biventricular repair and single ventricle palliation can be challenging, and the current tools to aid in the decision-making process fail to account for the morbidity associated with intermediate and late diastolic dysfunction. Staged ventricular recruitment, consisting of valvular repair techniques, resection of endocardial fibroelastosis, atrial septal restriction, and augmentation of pulmonary blood flow, has been shown to improve left ventricular size and function culminating in eventual biventricular circulation. Despite staged ventricular recruitment, some patients cannot undergo biventricular conversion. Strategies to address these complex patients, including the “reverse” double switch, are the next frontier in biventricular repair.

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